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By Sherman Hollar

Age diversity: eight - 12 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction 6

Chapter 1 the range of Animal existence 12

Chapter 2 category and behaviour 33

Chapter three Animals with out Backbones 50

Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61

Conclusion 75

Glossary 77

For additional information 80

Bibliography 83

Index 84

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Additional resources for A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition)

Sample text

On top of that there were the much heavier parental demands being made by the slow-growing infants. Paternal behaviour would have to be developed and the parental duties shared between the mother and the father: another good reason for a strong pair-bond. Given this situation as a starting point we can now see how other things grew from it. The naked ape had to develop the capacity for falling in love, for becoming sexually imprinted on a single partner, for evolving a pair-bond. Whichever way you put it, it comes to the same thing.

If a female of our own species were so unmoved by the experience of copulation that she too was likely to get up and wander offimmediately afterwards, the situation would be different, for she walks bipedally and the angle of her vaginal passage during normal locomotion is almost vertical. Under the simple influence of gravity the seminal fluid would flow back down the vaginal tract and much of it would be lost. There is therefore a great advantage in any reaction that tends to keep the female horizontal when the male ejaculates and stops copulating.

The ability to achieve multiple ejaculation fades, and the angle at which the erect penis is carried also drops. Erection can be maintained for an average of nearly an hour in the late teens, but it has I fallen to only seven minutes at the age of seventy. Nevertheless, 70 per cent of males are still sexually active at the age of seventy. A similar picture of waning sexuality with increasing age 62 The Naked Ape is found in the female. The more or less abrupt cessation of ovulation at around the age of fifty does not markedly reduce the degree of sexual responsiveness, when the population is taken as a whole.

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