By Toshihiko Hara
This is the e-book to target a brand new phenomenon rising within the twenty-first century: the speedily getting older and lowering inhabitants of a well-developed nation, specifically, Japan. The which means of this phenomenon has been effectively clarified because the attainable historic outcome of the demographic transition from excessive start and demise premiums to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional section and may be the fastest-shrinking society on this planet, top different Asian international locations which are experiencing an identical drastic adjustments. the writer used the historic information, compiled via the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of inner Affairs and Communications in 2006 and inhabitants projections for published in 2012 by means of the nationwide Institute of inhabitants and Social protection learn, to teach the earlier and destiny improvement of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, using the inhabitants lifestyles desk and web copy fee, the consequences of accelerating existence expectancy and declining fertility at the dependency ratio have been saw individually. ultimately, the ancient relationships between women’s survival premiums at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility expense to keep up the substitute point and the recorded overall fertility cost (TFR) have been analyzed. ancient remark confirmed TFR adapting to the theoretical point of fertility with a undeniable time lag and comparable to women’s survival charges at reproductive age. Women’s expanding lifespan and survival charges can have motivated selection making to reduce the chance of childbearing. whether the theoretical fertility expense meets the alternative point, women’s perspectives of minimizing the danger may perhaps stay unchanged simply because for ladies the cost–benefit imbalance in childbearing remains to be too excessive in Japan. according to the findings, the writer discusses the sustainability of eastern society relating to nationwide funds, social protection reform, relatives guidelines, immigration rules and neighborhood polices.
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Extra resources for A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan
However, many of them are prudent to expend their savings and means. This could be because they are afraid that the social security system would collapse. In a general way, they are preparing for a reduced pension and increasing co-payment at late-stage medical care. In addition, they could not find any good investment methods for their savings, which could stimulate the real economy. 2). That means the working age generation are obliges to support the following generation and the preceding generation.
This cabinet made the people who are aged 70 or older enjoyed free medical care and this shifted up the scale of pension benefit significantly. As a result, the social security expenditure went up to 15 % of national finance for the first time. However, after the ‘Oil Shock’ in 1974, the economic circumstances and Japanese economic growth were totally changed. But the legacy of this welfare policy remains behind. The Japanese pension system is not based on the defined contribution (DC) plan but on the defined benefit (DB) plan.
Accessed 30 Nov 2013. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2012. Todoufuken-Shichyoson Betsu Syuyou Toukei Hyo (Heisei 22 Nen) (Main statistics tables by prefecture and municipal: 2012). bid=000001037709. Accessed 24 Feb 2014. Chapter 3 Demographic Transition and Child/Elderly Care Cost Abstract If life expectancy remains unchanged, how would fertility levels affect optimal care cost? To answer this question, Japan’s life table for 2010 was analysed. The curve of the optimal care cost between low fertility and high fertility is nonlinear and asymmetric.