Download Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries by Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray PDF

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By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray

(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content stories fresh advancements within the box and their relevance for public wellbeing and fitness in constructing nations. offers reports from Asian, African, and Latin American international locations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the USA. Softcover.

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Extra info for Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

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The first of these chapters draws heavily on recent studies in North America and Europe, while the second synthesizes the evidence from studies in developing countries. Chapters 4, 5 and 6: Tools and approaches to air pollution management. This group includes a chapter describing how international air pollution guidelines and information systems can be used to develop local standards and regulations, a chapter summarizing some of the rapid assessment techniques that can be applied when critical information is lacking, and a chapter on systematic approaches to air quality management.

Cadmium is emitted to air from steel plants, waste incineration, zinc production and volcanic emissions. Tobacco also contains cadmium; smoking, therefore, can increase uptake of cadmium. Chromium is widely present in nature, but it can be introduced into the atmosphere by mining of chromite, production of chromium compounds and wind-blown dusts. It is a component of tobacco smoke. Manganese is a widely distributed element that occurs entirely as compounds that may enter the atmosphere due to suspension of road dusts, soils and mineral deposits.

Several studies have shown that the slope of the regression line is reduced when the concentration of particulates is at high concentration levels. These levels may be observed in urban areas in some highly polluted cities in middle income countries. The responsiveness of the population may be substantially different. The WHO response–concentration relationships were based on responses of populations that were mostly well nourished and had access to modern health services. By contrast, the populations exposed to higher concentrations of particles in less affluent countries may have a lower level of quality of both nutrition and healthcare.

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