Download Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIII by S. Trivikrama Rao, Christian Hogrefe, Gopal Sistla, PDF

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By S. Trivikrama Rao, Christian Hogrefe, Gopal Sistla, Shiang-Yuh Wu, Winston Hao (auth.), Sven-Erik Gryning, Ekaterina Batchvarova (eds.)

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Local control strategies, temporarily implemented, are able to achieve moderate decreases in the afternoon 0 3 peak values in that domain exposed to the measures when there are conditions of very little exchange of air masses. Even by exhausting all available local control potential (and hence by applying the most stringent actions), the effects on peak ozone levels cannot be placed on a par with those of permanent regional (nation-wide and less intensive) emission control. Temporary single measures which are solely region-related lead to relatively small emission reductions (up to 25%) and exert only minimal effects on peak ozone concentrations (S-I, local speed limits and S-2, local driving bans for non-Iow emission diesel cars).

This approach acknowledges that there is little relationship between the observations and the model base case for this component. When observations are adjusted according to the model-predicted changes from Approach 1, the so-called NOx disbenefits are evident for the NOx-focused control case (Figure 6) over the VOC-limited areas. When ozone observations are adjusted according to Approach 3, the 50% NOx and 25% VOC control scenario produces a spatial pattern with much lower values of 4th maxima than the 25% NOx and 50% VOC control case (Figure 6).

In the case of permanent reduction measures according to the scenario "Trend-2005" (D-l), decreases of the aftemoon's ozone peak concentrations ranging from 15% to 25% were computed in large parts of the modelling domain. Peak values of 300 ~g/m3, for instance, would thus be lowered by 60~g/m3 on an 31 average. 4 In the case of additional permanent reduction measures according to the scenario "Reduction 2005", the calculated aftemoon's peak concentrations are 30 to 40% lower than in the base case run.

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