By Leonard Susskind

Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized via advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein's consciousness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns in regards to the lack of details in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in a global with gravity. for 2 many years those questions questioned theoretical physicists and finally resulted in a revolution within the approach we expect approximately area, time, subject and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a notable precept known as ''The Holographic Principle'', that's now a big concentration of recognition in gravitational study, quantum box thought and straightforward particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String thought, develops and explains those options

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**Extra resources for An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe**

**Sample text**

17 to obtain the entropy. 14 can be thought of as both entanglement and thermal entropy in the special case of the Rindler space density matrix. 30. Thus the computation of the entropy of Rindler space is reduced to ordinary thermodynamic methods. For the present case of free ﬁelds the entropy is additive over the modes and can be estimated from the formula for the thermodynamics of a free 1+1 dimensional scalar ﬁeld. To compute the total entropy we begin by replacing the inﬁnite transverse X, Y plane by a ﬁnite torus with periodic boundary conditions.

Evidently such an observer never actually sees events on the The Schwarzschild Black Hole 19 areas Match here of 2-sp B’ A r < t= G M H r 2M =2 8 r=0 + G r=0 - Fig. 10 Penrose diagram for collapsing shell of massless particles 8 r= Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution Di sta nt ob se rv er 20 Fig. 11 Distant observer to collapsing spherical shell horizon. In this sense the horizon must be regarded as at the end of time. Any particle or wave which falls through the horizon is seen by the distant observer as asymptotically approaching the horizon as it is inﬁnitely red shifted.

8 before the shell passes. Region B is the region outside the shell and must be modiﬁed in order to account for the gravitational ﬁeld due to the mass M. In Newtonian physics the gravitational ﬁeld exterior to a spherical mass distribution is uniquely that of a point mass located at the center of the distribution. Much the same is true in general relativity. In this case Birkoﬀ’s theorem tells us that the geometry outside the shell must be the Schwarzschild geometry. 9. Once again the particular value of Y + chosen for the trajectory is immaterial.